Theistic Evolution (Article)

Question: “What is theistic evolution?”Theistic Evolution is one of three major origin-of-life worldviews, the other two being Atheistic Evolution (also commonly known as Darwinian Evolution) and Special Creation.


Atheistic Evolution says that there is no God and that life can and did emerge naturally from preexisting non-living building blocks under the influence of natural laws (like gravity, etc), although the origin of those natural laws is not explained. Special Creation says that God created life directly, either from nothing or from preexisting materials. (There are a variety of Special Creation hypotheses reflecting a variety of Theistic traditions. For the purpose of this article we will focus on the biblical Christian perspective.)

Theistic Evolution says one of two things. First, either there is a God, but He wasn’t directly involved in the origin of life. He may have created the building blocks, He may have created the natural laws, He may even have created these things with the eventual emergence of life in mind, but at some point early on He stepped back and let His creation take over. He let it do what it does, whatever that is, and life eventually emerged from non-living material. This view is similar to Atheistic Evolution in that it presumes a naturalistic origin of life.

The second alternative of theistic evolution is that God did not perform just one or two miracles to bring about the origin of life as we know it. His miracles were multitudinous. He led life step by step down a path that took it from primeval simplicity to contemporary complexity, similar to Darwin’s Evolutionary Tree of Life (fish begot amphibians who begot reptiles who begot birds and mammals, etc). Where life was not able to evolve naturally (how does a reptile’s limb evolve into a bird’s wing naturally?), God stepped in. This view is similar to Special Creation in that it presumes that God acted supernaturally in some way to bring about life as we know it.

There are numerous differences between the biblical Special Creation perspective and the Theistic Evolution perspective. One significant difference concerns their respective views on death. Theistic evolutionists tend to believe that the Earth is billions of years old and that the geologic column containing the fossil record represents long epochs of time. Since man does not appear until late in the fossil record, theistic evolutionists believe that many creatures lived, died and became extinct long before man’s belated arrival. This means that death existed before Adam and his sin.

Biblical Creationists (as Biblical Special Creationists are often called) believe that the earth is relatively young and that the fossil record was laid down during and after Noah’s Flood. The stratification of the layers is thought to have occurred due to hydrologic sorting and liquefaction, both of which are observed phenomena. This puts the fossil record and the death and carnage which it describes hundreds of years after Adam’s sin.

Another significant difference between the two positions is how they read Genesis. Theistic evolutionists tend to subscribe to either the Day-Age theory or the Framework Theory, both of which are allegorical interpretations of the Genesis 1 creation week. Biblical creationists subscribe to a literal 24-hour reading of Genesis 1. (See “Does Genesis chapter 1 literally mean 24-hour days?” on this site.)

Both of the two theistic evolutionist views are flawed from a Christian prospective in that they don’t line up with the Genesis creation account. Consider:

Theistic evolutionists imagine a Darwinian scenario in which stars evolved, then our solar system, then earth, then plants and animals, and eventually man. The two theistic evolution viewpoints disagree as to the role God played in the unfolding of events, but they generally agree on the Darwinian timeline. This timeline is in conflict with the Genesis creation account. For example, Genesis 1 says that the earth was created on Day One and the sun, moon and stars weren’t created until Day Four. Some “progressive creationists” argue that the wording of Genesis suggests the sun, moon and stars were actually created on Day One but they couldn’t be seen through earth’s atmosphere until Day Four, leading to their placement on Day Four. This is a bit of a stretch as the Genesis account is pretty clear that the earth didn’t have an atmosphere until Day Two. If the sun, moon and stars were created on Day One, they should have been visible on Day One.

Another example of discordance is that the Genesis account clearly says that birds were created with sea creatures on Day Five while land animals were not created until Day Six. This is in direct opposition to the Darwinian view that birds evolved from land animals. The biblical account says that birds preceded land animals. The theistic evolutionist view says exactly the opposite.

One of the most unfortunate trends in postmodern Christianity is that of reinterpreting Genesis to accommodate evolutionary theories. Many well-known Bible teachers and apologists have caved in to the evolutionists and have come to believe that adhering to a literal interpretation of Genesis is somehow detrimental to the credibility of Christians. If anything, evolutionists lose respect for those whose belief in the Bible is so tenuous that we are willing to compromise it and embrace their ideas. Although the number of true creationists may be dwindling in academia, several faithful organizations such as Answers in Genesis, the Creation Research Society and the Institute for Creation Research have affirmed that the Bible is not only compatible with real science, but affirm that not a single word in the Bible has ever been disproved by true science. The Bible is God’s living Word, given to us by the Creator of the universe, and His description of how He created it is not compatible with the theory of evolution. Trying to combine the two is like trying to combine oil and water—it just won’t mix.

Recommended Resource: Reclaiming Science from Darwinism: A Clear Understanding of Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent by Kenneth Poppe.


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